NAGSS Support Studies

A Call for Sound Empirical Testing and Evaluation of Criteria for Complicated Grief Proposed for DSM-V

This article discusses issues related to the development of criteria for a diagnostic category for complicated grief to be considered for inclusion in the next edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. The authors call for empirical testing of criteria that have been prop...

A Framework for Healing from Loss: A Further Integration of Psychodynamic and Social Work Theory

The article draws upon both psychodynamic and social work theory to provide insight into the way loss and grief can result in behavioral problems in youth. The article uses a case study of a twelve year-old boy who had been abandoned by both parents. The author drew upon psychodynamic theories to ga...

A Meta-Analysis of Interventions for Bereaved Children and Adolescents

The authors of this study performed two meta-analyses of interventions for bereaved children and adolescents: one meta-analysis examined 13 studies with control groups, and another meta-analysis examined 12 studies that did not include control groups. The authors stated that the reason for examining...

A Modest Proposal about Bereavement and Recovery

This article is an essay that raises the issue of the appropriate wording to use for individuals who suffer bereavement but eventually experience emotional, behavioral, spiritual, interpersonal, and cognitive growth. As the author notes, many researchers involved in grief and bereavement studies hav...

A Nationwide Random Sampling Survey of Potential Complicated Grief in Japan

This article summarizes a study that investigated the prevalence of significant loss, the potential of complicated grief and the risk factors for complicated grief in a random sampling of adults in Japan.  Data were obtained from three measures - a 5-question questionnaire, the Japanese version...

A Phenomenological Study of Family Needs Following the Suicide of a Teenager

This article summarized the results of a study that investigated the needs of families bereaved by the suicide death of a teenager in the family.  Six sets of bereaved parent were interviewed using a set of open ended questions.  The families identified the following support needs:  1...

A Pragmatic Belief System in Family Meaning-Making After Death

This article summarizes a qualitative study that investigated the belief systems that are used by adult members of a family bereaved of the husband/father, and are helpful in making meaning of the death.  Thirty-four families consisting of the widow (at least 65 years old) and 1 or 2 adult biol...

A Sense of ‘Unrealness' about the Death of a Loved-One: An Exploratory Study of its Role in Emotional Complications among Bereaved Individuals

This article describes the results of a study involving 397 adults who completed a questionnaire that included the Inventory of Complicated Grief-Revised (ICG-R), a depression subscale, a Grief Cognitions Subscale, and the Measure of Avoidance Strategies (MAS). The author used a cognitive behavioral...

A Social Constructionist Account of Grief: Loss and the Narration of Meaning

This article, from several grief researchers, presents the argument that grief or mourning is primarily a social endeavor in which the bereaved seek meaning within a broad community inclusive of personal, family, social and cultural spheres.  The authors acknowledge that their perspective may r...

A Study of Complicated Grief Symptoms in People with Intellectual Disabilities

The authors conducted a study to investigate the impact of parental bereavement on symptoms of complicated grief for a population of adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). Participants included 76 adults (mean age 40 years), half of whom had experienced the death of a parent within the previous...

A Support Group Intervention for Children Bereaved by Parental Suicide

The authors of this article advocate for support groups specifically designed for children who have experienced the death of a parent or other family member to suicide. The authors identify goals and activities for each session of an eight-session support group intervention involving 6 to 8 children...

“We will remember them”: A mixed-method study to explore which post-funeral remembrance activities are most significant and important to bereaved people living with loss, and why those particular activities are chosen

This article describes a study that examined the attitudes towards post-funeral remembrance activities and rituals of 43 adults who had experienced the death of a family member in hospice care. Most participants indicated that rituals helped them maintain a bond with the deceased, provided them with...

Acceptance of Spousal Death: The Factor of Time in Bereaved Older Adults' Search for Meaning

This article summarized a study that examined the factor of time as it relates to bereaved elderly Chinese in the task of accepting the death of a spouse.  Fifteen bereaved elderly Chinese adults were interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide.  Results indicated two time-related ...

Acts of Resistance: Breaking the Silence of Grief Following Traffic Crash Fatalities

This article summarized a qualitative study with 21 adults in Australia who experienced the death of a close relative due to a traffic accident. The authors used a semi-structured interview guide and coded responses to identify themes associated with the participants’ bereavement experiences. ...

African Americans in Bereavement: Grief as a Function of Ethnicity

This article describes a study designed to explore differences in the way African Americans experience grief compared to Caucasians. Over 1,500 undergraduate students attending the University of Memphis constituted the sample for this study. All participants in the study had experienced bereavement ...

An Empirical Examination of the Stage Theory of Grief

This article describes a study designed to test the magnitude and patterns of change over time of 5 indicators of grief for individuals who had experienced the death of a loved one to natural causes. The researchers used the data from the Yale Bereavement Study to determine the levels of disbelief, ...

An Evaluation of a Suicide Bereavement Peer Support Program

This article describes a qualitative study that examined the effectiveness of a peer support program for suicide survivors. The peer support program consisted of dyads of peer supporters and recent suicide survivors who met for one peer support session. The authors used a mixed methods design involv...

An Investigation of the Relationship of Personality, Coping, and Grief Intensity Among Bereaved Mothers

After the death of a loved one, the bereaved may experience significant distress.  The researchers sought to discover whether personality variables and differing coping strategies influenced the way individuals experience grief.  The researchers particularly wanted to examine how individua...

An Item Response Theory Analysis of a Measure of Complicated Grief

This article describes the use of a statistical method to investigate the relative ability of individual questions on the Inventory of Complicated Grief – Revised (ICG-R) to distinguish between levels of severity of Complicated Grief. The authors found that items that best identified high leve...

And Then the Dog Died

The article provides a case analysis of a child that experienced the death of a beloved dog after previously experiencing the deaths of three grandparents and an uncle within the space of 18 months. The authors suggest that the earlier loss experiences magnified the child’s response to the dea...

Are We Getting It Right? Parents' Perceptions of Hospice Child Bereavement Support Services

This article describes a qualitative study with 25 parents who had children between the ages of 4 and 18 years, and who had experienced the death of a close family member. The researchers used a purposively selected sample of 19 parents who had utilized the hospice support services for bereaved chil...

Assessing the Role of Attachment to God, Meaning, and Religious Coping as Mediators in the Grief Experience

This article summarized a study that investigated the relationship between attachment to God, religious coping, meaning (purpose and coherence) and stress-related growth. Data were collected from 93 participants who completed the following seven measurement instruments: 1) Experiences in Close Relat...

Associations Among Mother-Child Communication Quality, Childhood Maladaptive Grief, and Depressive Symptoms

This article summarizes a study that examined the communication between mothers and their children after the death of the fathers to find associations between communication efficacy and: 1) maternal depressive symptoms, and 2) depressive and maladaptive grief symptoms in children.  Thirty-eight...

Attachment and Severity of Grief: The Mediating Role of Negative Appraisal and Inflexible Coping

The study examined the assumption of the Dual Process Model (DPM) of coping with bereavement that the process of oscillation between two types of coping strategies is mediated by the attachment style of the bereaved person. According to DPM, effective dealing with bereavement includes Loss-Oriented ...

Attachment in Coping with Bereavement: A Theoretical Integration

The authors discuss the contributions of cognitive stress theory and attachment theory to the understanding of how people grieve following the death of a loved one. The authors state that they built on cognitive stress theory and developed the Dual-Process Model (DPM) to provide a theoretical framew...

ATTEND: Toward a Mindfulness-Based Bereavement Care Model

This article describes ATTEND, a mindfulness-based model of bereavement care which addresses both provider and the traumatically bereaved by focusing on the mindful attunement of both parties in the healing relationship. ATTEND stands for (A)ttunement, which encompasses mindfulness, responsiveness, ...

Behavioral Activation for Pathological Grief

The authors of this article presented the rationale for the use of the Behavioral Activation (BA) approach in treating pathological grief and provided 2 case studies as examples. Behavioral Activation is a therapeutic approach that encourages behavioral change by promoting engagement in social activ...

Bereaved Adults' Evaluations of Grief Management Messages: Effects of Message Person Centeredness, Recipient Individual Differences, and Contextual Factors

This article summarized the results of a study to identify ways in which people can help the bereaved cope with their grief.  The study participants were 105 bereaved college students.  Participants were asked to rate the level of helpfulness of various support strategies that others used ...

Bereavement and Bereavement Care in Health and Social Care: Provision and Practice in Scotland

This article summarizes the results of a qualitative interview study to identify: 1) consensus views of professionals and volunteers involved in bereavement care and practice in Scotland, and 2) priorities for the development of local and national bereavement policies and services.  Nine key th...

Bereavement and the Brain: Invitation to a Conversation Between Bereavement Researchers and Neuroscientists

This article provides an interdisciplinary integration of developments in neuroscience and in bereavement theory. The study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify the activation of the brain while study participants were engaged in thinking about grief and loss. The author sug...

Bereavement Experiences of Mothers and Fathers over Time after the Death of a Child Due to Cancer

This article summarizes the results of a qualitative longitudinal study that investigated the bereavement differences and growth patterns of mothers and fathers after the death of a child due to cancer. Thirteen mothers and five fathers were interviewed at six months, twelve months and eighteen mont...

Bereavement Practices Among California Hospices: Results of a Statewide Survey

This article summarizes the results of a survey conducted in 1999-2000 by the California Hospice and Palliative Care Association. Of the 160 hospices that are members of the association, a total of 131 (82%) provided information on the bereavement services offered, the fees charged for services, and...

Bereavement Support for Couples Following Death of a Baby: Program Development and 14-Year Exit Analysis

The article describes a program developed in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at Massachusetts General Hospital for Children that provided grief support groups for parents whose infants died in the hospital. Exit analyses were conducted over a 14 year time period.  The program was a hospital-ba...

Bereavement Support in an Acute Hospital: An Irish Model

This article summarizes a study that provided baseline information regarding the Beaumont model of service delivery, a hospital-based bereavement care program at Beaumont Hospital, a large acute general hospital in Dublin, Ireland. The Beaumont model is a comprehensive care model that encompasses ca...

Beyond Knowledge and Skills: Self-Competence in Working with Death, Dying, and Bereavement

This article summarized the results of a study that explored what helping professionals regard as the required competencies in death work.   One hundred and seventy-six professionals, all of whom had worked in areas related to death, dying and bereavement and had completed a professional t...

Can a Function-Based Therapy for Spousally Bereaved Seniors Accrue Benefits in Both Functional and Emotional Domains?

This article summarizes a study that compared a control group of bereaved seniors in individual therapy concentrating on emotional issues versus a group of bereaved seniors in individual therapy focusing on functional therapy, i.e. disruptions in sleep and of daily life style regularity, such as lea...

Caregivers' Estimations of Their Children's Perceptions of Death as a Biological Concept

This article summarized the results of an exploratory study to compare children’s perceptions of death to their caregivers’ understanding of their knowledge. Participants included 141 5-7 year old boys and girls. Four factors such as school decile (New Zealand’s socio-economic cate...

Cause of Death and the Quest for Meaning after the Loss of a Child

This article summarized the results of a study that identified common themes of meaning-making and benefit-finding, associations between cause of death and meaning-making themes, and whether cause of death predicted prolonged grief symptoms.   Participants included were bereaved parents wh...

Changes in Parental Self-Identity Following the Death of a Child to Cancer

This article summarizes a study that examined stability and changes in parents’ self-identity after the cancer death of their child.  Data was taken from a larger bereavement study, and was analyzed for two post death trajectories – reintegration (new goals and purposes are integrat...

Child Death in the United States: Productivity and the Economic Burden of Parental Grief

This article summarizes a study that explored the economic costs/impact of bereavement during the first 6 months post-death of a child.  Economic costs included: 1) financial expenses, such as for health-care, funeral and outside help costs; 2) absenteeism costs – time away from work; and...

Commentary on the Inclusion of Persistent Complex Bereavement-Related Disorder in DSM-5

This article from two well-known grief researchers presents their opinions on the inclusion of “Adjustment Disorder Related to Bereavement” (ADRTB) and “Persistent Complex Bereavement-Related Disorder” (PCBRD), proposed diagnoses for dysfunctional grief for the upcoming Diagn...

Comparison of Continuing Bonds Reported by Parents and Siblings after a Child's Death from Cancer

This article summarized the results of a study that compared the types of continuing bonds that parents and siblings experienced after the death of a child in the family due to cancer.  Taken from a larger ongoing longitudinal study, data were collected from the first interview with family memb...

Complicated Grief and the Trend Toward Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy

This article reviews the research on the use of cognitive-behavioral therapy to address grief. Specifically, the author discusses the use of the Dual-Process Model (DPM). The DPM is a bereavement coping model that encourages the bereaved to focus at times on loss-oriented coping, and at other times ...

Complicated Grief in Children – The Perspectives of Experienced Professionals

This article summarizes the results of an exploratory study that investigated the opinions of experienced professionals regarding complicated grief in children and a possible complicated grief diagnosis for children.  A survey containing both open and closed questions was sent to experienced pr...

Confirming the Distinctiveness of Complicated Grief from Depression and Anxiety Among Adolescents

This article summarizes the results of two studies designed to determine if adolescents experience complicated grief (CG) as a form of distress that is distinct from depression and anxiety. The first study was conducted with 245 adolescents who had experienced the death of a grandparent.  Three...

Constructions of Mexican American Family Grief After the Death of a Child: An Exploratory Study

This article presents the findings from a qualitative study examining the bereavement experiences of nine Mexican American adults who had experienced the death of a child. All participants were at least three years post-loss. The main theme that emerged from the interviews was that all participants ...

Continuing Bonds after Suicide Bereavement in Childhood

This article summarized a qualitative study that explored the possibly unique qualities of the continuing bonds of children bereaved by the suicide death of a parent, and the emotional impact of such continuing bonds.  Data were collected from the semi-structured interviews of ten children, fiv...

Continuing Bonds and Reconstructing Meaning: Mitigating Complications in Bereavement

This article explores the relationship between the bereaved individual’s ability to create meaning and establish continuing bonds after the death of a loved one and symptoms of complicated grief. Attachment theory suggests that upon the death of a loved one, the bereaved must work through the ...

Continuing Bonds in Bereaved Pakistani Muslims: Effects of Culture and Religion

This article summarizes the results of a study that explored the influence of culture and religion on the continuing bonds of bereaved Pakistani Muslims.  Data were obtained from the semi-structured interviews of 10 adult Pakistani Muslim men and women who had experienced the death of a signifi...

Continuing Bonds, Attachment Style, and Adjustment in the Conjugal Bereavement among Hong Kong Chinese

This article summarized the results of an exploratory study that examined the roles of continuing bonds (CB) and attachment style in the conjugally bereaved Hong Kong Chinese. The investigators in this study expected that externalized CB would be positively correlated with an insecure attachment sty...

Continuing Bonds, Risk Factors for Complicated Grief, and Adjustment to Bereavement

This article summarized a study examining the relationships between two different types of continuing bonds and adjustment to bereavement. A quantitative survey posted on a website was completed by 502 bereaved adults. The authors used a continuing bonds scale developed for the purposes of this stud...

Coping with the Ultimate Deprivation: Narrative Themes in a Parental Bereavement Support Group

This article describes a study conducted to discover narrative themes that were expressed during an ongoing grief support group for parents who had experienced the death of a child.  One of the principal investigators collected data by observing the groups and taking notes before, during and af...

Couples at Risk Following the Death of Their Child: Predictors of Grief Versus Depression

This article describes a longitudinal study designed to identify variables influencing parental grief and depression following the death of a child. Couples who had experienced the death of a child completed questionnaires at 6, 13 and 20 months postloss. The researchers measured the participants&rs...

Creating Philanthropic Foundations to Deal with Grief: Case Studies of Bereaved Parents

This article summarizes a qualitative study, taken from a larger research project that investigated the link between bereaved parents, finding purpose, meaning-making, and the establishment of philanthropic foundations.  Interviews were conducted with four bereaved mothers and two bereaved fath...

Culture and Continuing Bonds: A Prospective Comparison of Bereavement in the United States and the People's Republic of China

This article discusses the debate regarding the maintenance by bereaved individuals of continuing bonds with the deceased, and describes a comparative study of the relationship between continuing bonds and levels of distress observed among groups of mourners in the United States and the People&rsquo...

Custodial Grandparenting: Perceptions of Loss by Non-Custodial Grandparent Peers

This article summarizes the results of a research study that examined the perceptions of non-custodial grandparents towards the losses experienced by custodial grandparents. Non-custodial grandparents completed the Perception of Loss Scale after reading a scenario involving a grandmother raising a g...

Death Beliefs and Practices from an Asian Indian American Hindu Perspective

This article summarizes the results of a study that explored the cultural norms and beliefs related to death and the pre- and post-death practices of three generations of Asian Indian American Hindus living in the United States.  Data were collected through focus group interviews with three gro...

Death Competence: An Ethical Imperative

The authors of this article argue that death competence, a term they coined and a model they presented in 2009, is a necessary prerequisite for practicing grief counselors.  They define death competence as a specialized skill encompassing emotional competency and cognitive competency that enabl...

Death on the Digital Landscape: A Preliminary Investigation into the Grief Process and Motivation in the Online Memoriam

This article summarizes a study that investigated the use and perceived acceptability of online grieving, the motivations to use it, and whether personal religious beliefs have any influence. Participants were 270 undergraduates who used social networking sites, SNS, and completed an online survey.&...

Death-Related Versus Fond Memories of a Deceased Attachment Figure: Examining Emotional Arousal

This article summarized the results of a study that examined the emotional arousal during recall generated by death-related memories versus fond memories of a deceased attachment figure.  The researcher interviewed 23 females, identified as having unresolved grief at 3 months or more after the ...

Descriptions of Social Support in Treatment Narratives of Complicated Grievers

This qualitative study focused on 22 outpatients who participated in a complicated grief program. The study focused on how social support may affect complicated grief. The authors found that the presence of positive social support was not sufficient to prevent complicated grief. The authors also con...

Difficulties Accepting the Loss of a Spouse: A Precursor for Intensified Grieving Among Widowed Older Adults

The longitudinal study summarized in this article simultaneously studied  the three factors identified in the Texas Revised Inventory of Grief- Present (TRIG-Present)scale: 1) non-acceptance of the loss, 2) grief-related thoughts, and 3) emotional response, to determine which factor present in ...

Distinguishing Symptoms of Grief and Depression in a Cohort of Advanced Cancer Patients

The authors of this article conducted a quantitative study to determine whether the symptoms of grief were distinguishable from those of depression for patients with terminal cancer. Previous studies have indicated that grief and depression are separate constructs for bereaved individuals. The sampl...

Do Grief Self-Help Books Convey Contemporary Perspectives on Grieving?

The author of this article traces the evolution of thought regarding what constitutes healthy grieving through 3 major time periods; pre-1990’s, the 1990’s, and post-1990’s; as well as analyzes what the self-help books from each era promote.  The author presented prevalent gri...

Do Rates of Mental Disorders and Existential Distress among Advanced Stage Cancer Patients Increase as Death Approaches?

This article summarizes the results of a multi-site, longitudinal cohort study that was designed to determine whether mental disorders increase as individuals with advanced cancer draw closer to death. Researchers interviewed 289 patients before their deaths for major depressive disorder, panic diso...

Dream Content in Complicated Grief: A Window into Loss-Related Cognitive Schemas

This article summarized the results of a study that explored 1) whether the dream content of bereaved adults with Complicated Grief (CG) differed from those without CG, and 2) whether CG patients dreaming of the deceased or not dreaming of the deceased affected daytime emotional distress.  The ...

Dreams of the Dead among Cambodian Refugees: Frequency, Phenomenology, and Relationship to Complicated Grief and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

This article summarized a study that investigated the dreams of the deceased of bereaved Cambodian refugees who experienced the death of someone (mostly a relative) during the Pol Pot genocide period, and the dream relationship to prolonged grief and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Participants were ...

DSM-V Diagnostic Criteria for Bereavement-Related Disorders in Children and Adolescents: Developmental Considerations

The authors recommend that the criteria for the two bereavement-related disorders (Adjustment Disorder Related to Bereavement in the main text and Bereavement-Related Disorder in the index) proposed for the DSM-V include developmentally informed criteria and specifiers for children/adolescents, incl...

Early Parental Adjustment and Bereavement After Childhood Cancer Death

This article summarizes the results of a qualitative study designed to investigate the bereavement and adjustment of parents during the 6 months following the death of a child due to cancer. The researchers interviewed 18 mothers and 13 fathers and identified three key concepts relating to parental ...

Economic Components of Grief

This article summarizes the results of a quantitative and qualitative study using the dual process model of bereavement as a framework to investigate the impact of perceived financial changes on bereavement for adults after the death of a partner. Themes from in-depth interviews with 44 participants...

Effects of Directed Written Disclosure on Grief and Distress Symptoms Among Bereaved Individuals

The authors of this article designed a randomized controlled trial of the impact of using specific instructions for a writing intervention designed for bereaved individuals. Participants were 68 college students who had experienced a death and were able to complete directed writing assignments. The ...

Effects of Support Groups on Post Traumatic Stress Responses in Women Experiencing Stillbirth

This article summarizes the results of a research study that examined the efficacy of support groups specifically designed for mothers who had experienced child death during their gestational period, with nearly half the mothers experiencing the loss at or past full term pregnancy.  The time el...

Elevated Rates of Prolonged Grief Disorder in African Americans

This article analyzes the prevalence of Prolonged Grief Disorder (PGD) in African Americans. PGD is the term that is being used to replace what previously was called complicated grief. PGD is being considered as a diagnostic category in the next edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Me...

Empowering People at Work in the Face of Death and Bereavement

This article advocates for workplace training in grief and bereavement so that employees and managers are better equipped to cope when a death occurs. The author notes that many managers who are unexpectedly faced with the death of an employee, or an employee’s family member, are not prepared ...

End-of -Life Communication and Adjustment: Pre-Loss Communication as a Predictor of Bereavement-Related Outcomes

This study was based upon 60 individuals recruited from an Internet based grief support group. Each of the participants had experienced the death of a close family member; the deaths had been expected or anticipated because of a terminal illness. The researchers concluded that pre-loss acceptance of...

Ethical Issues in the Study of Bereavement: The Opinions of Bereaved Adults

This study used two web-based questionnaires to obtain the opinions of bereaved adults regarding participation in grief research. Participants were recruited from five different grief support group message boards.   The study results showed that 98 percent of the participants believed that...

Evaluating a Bereavement Follow-Up Intervention for Grieving Fathers and Their Experiences of Support After the Death of a Child – A Pilot Study

This article summarizes the results of a study to evaluate the effectiveness of a pilot intervention grief support program for bereaved fathers, and to describe the fathers’ experiences of participating. Sixty-two fathers participated in the intervention group and 41 fathers were in the contro...

Examination of Proposed Criteria for Complicated Grief in People Confronted with Violent or Non-Violent Loss

This article summarizes a study performed in the Netherlands to determine whether the proposed criteria used in the revised Inventory of Complicated Grief (ICG-R) are useful in identifying caseness for complicated grief. The study included 1,052 male and female participants who had experienced the d...

Experiences of African American Parents Following Perinatal or Pediatric Death: A Literature Review

This article offers a literature review of studies investigating the experiences of African American parents bereaved of a young child.  Ten articles, 5 published dissertations and 5 journal articles were identified for review.  Analysis of the studies revealed 4 major themes associated wi...

Exploration of Nurse Practitioner Practice with Clients Who Are Grieving

This article summarizes the results of a qualitative study designed to explore the clinical practice of nurse practitioners working with patients who were grieving.  Data were collected via semistructured interviews conducted by the researcher with nine nurse practitioners. The authors found th...

Exploring Children's Understanding of Death: Through Drawings and the Death Concept Questionnaire

This article summarizes the results of a study that investigated children’s understanding of death, particularly the sub-concepts of finality, irreversibility, non-functionality, inevitability, universality and causality.  Participants were 26 children who had experienced the death of som...

Exploring Current Service Provision for Prolonged Grief Disorder and Suggestions for Future Advances

The authors provide a conceptual overview of the development of Prolonged Grief Disorder (PGD). The authors identify concerns with pathologizing grief, but refer to research that indicates that 87.5% of bereaved individuals who met the criteria for PGD stated that a diagnosis would help them feel th...

Exploring Sibling Bereavement

This article is a book review of Betty Davies’s Shadows of the Sun: The Experiences of Sibling Bereavement in Childhood (1999).  Shadows of the Sun frames sibling bereavement in terms of the social relationship between siblings instead of solely focusing on the individual experiences of t...

Fear of Death, Mortality Communication, and Psychological Distress Among Secular and Religiously Observant Family Caregivers of Terminal Cancer Patients

The authors of this article conducted a study to investigate the differences in communication regarding a family member’s impending death and the resulting levels of psychological distress between two groups of Israeli caregivers, a group of religiously observant Jews and a secular group. ...

Finding Positive Meaning After Loss: The Mediating Role of Reflection for Bereaved Individuals

This article summarizes a study that investigated the role of reflection (defined as intellectual reflection motivated by curiosity/interest in the self) between the search for meaning, positive affect and negative affect, and the achievement of positive meaning making by the bereaved.  Data we...

Forgotten Grievers: An Exploration of the Grief Experiences of Bereaved Grandparents (part 2)

This article summarizes a qualitative study that explored the bereavement experiences of grandparents, and factors that facilitated or hindered their healing process.  Data were collected from in-depth, one-on-one semi-structured interviews with 17 grandparents (13 grandmothers and 4 grandfathe...

Functional Neuroanatomy of Grief: An fMRI Study

This article summarizes the results of a study that used functional neuroimaging to identify the areas of the brain that were activated by grief. Eight bereaved women participated in the study. Researchers exposed the women to 4 different conditions: pictures of their deceased loved one paired with ...

Ghosts, Meaning, and Faith: After-Death Communications in Bereavement Narratives

In this article, the author analyzes the purpose and function of after-death communications (ADCs) in the course of the grief journey.  ADCs are defined to include: sense of presence, visual images, voices, odors, dreams, unusual activities in appliances, and meaningfully timed appearances of p...

Giving Birth to Life - Again!: Bereaved Parents' Experiences with Children Born Following the Death of an Adult Son

The authors of this article conducted a qualitative study with seven couples and three mothers in Israel who experienced the birth of a child after the death of a son as a result of military service. Semi-structured interviews were used and three main themes were identified from the responses. The f...

Grief and the Separation of Home and Work

This article summarizes the advantages and disadvantages for mourners of the separation that exists between work and home in modern society. The author uses three bereavement theories (reminder theory, the dual process model, and the construction of continuing bonds) to identify benefits and drawbac...

Grief in Children and Adolescents Bereaved by Sudden Parental Death

This article summarizes a longitudinal study that investigated the course of grief reactions in 182 children and adolescents who experienced a sudden parental death. Assessments were made through interviews and multiple measures, including a modified version of the Inventory of Complicated Grief, at...

Grief Processing and Deliberate Grief Avoidance: A Prospective Comparison of Bereaved Spouses and Parents in the United States and the People's Republic of China

This article describes a study that examined the relationship between grief processing and deliberate grief avoidance on adjustment to the death of a child or spouse. The study included participants from both the United States and the People’s Republic of China. The participants completed ques...

Grief, Consolation, and Religions: A Conceptual Framework

This article is an opinion piece asserting that even though consolation has historically been thought to ameliorate grief, it is not considered a part of helping the bereaved in the grief models of today.  In this article, the author addresses consolation and grief. Historically, grief describe...

Grieving Online: Newcomers' Constructions of Grief in an Online Support Group

This article summarizes a qualitative research study that analyzed the initial posts of newcomers seeking to join an online grief support group to examine how grief talk is constructed. Data were collected from the most active forum (loss of spouse) of one online grief support group.  Three que...

Group Composition and Group Therapy for Complicated Grief

This article summarizes the results of a study in which researchers sought to investigate the impact of group composition on the outcomes for clients with complicated grief. The researchers investigated the effect of the percentage of participants in a group with high levels of quality of object rel...

Helpful Aspects of Bereavement Support for Adults Following an Expected Death: Volunteer's and Bereaved People's Perspectives

This article summarized a study that investigated what both the bereaved and their grief support volunteers perceived to be helpful aspects in grief support. Twenty-four clients completed three measures, the Helpful Aspects of Therapy, the short form of the Agnew Relationship Measure and the Adult A...

Homicide Bereavement Counseling: A Survey of Providers

The article summarizes the results of an opinion survey from 116 homicide bereavement caregivers, 45% of whom are homicide survivors themselves.  The goals of the study were to obtain information regarding current practices in homicide bereavement counseling and identify the conceptual framewor...

How Schools Can Support Children Who Experience Loss and Death

The author, an educational psychologist who works in the United Kingdom, provides a literature review of child bereavement experiences and offers suggestions for how schools can respond to and support grieving children. The author notes that data indicate that between 4% and 7% of children experienc...

How They Died, Time Since Loss, and Bereavement Outcomes

This article summarizes a study designed to investigate differences in bereavement outcomes among parents who had experienced the death of a child to suicide, to other traumatic causes, or to natural causes. In addition, the study sought to identify variables that influenced the bereavement outcomes...

Humor, Laughter, and Happiness in the Daily Lives of Recently Bereaved Spouses

This article summarizes the results of a research study in which 292 recently widowed men and women, aged 50 and over, responded to questionnaires designed to investigate the role of humor, laughter, and happiness in their daily lives. The questionnaires were designed to assess the bereaved in three...

Identifying and Responding to Ethical and Methodological Issues in After-Death Interviews with Next-of Kin

This article discusses ethical and methodological issues that arose in a pilot study involving face-to-face interviews with bereaved next-of-kin. The study was done as part of a research project with the Veterans Affairs Health Services. The authors discuss issues related to recruitment and informed...

Implementing a Triangulation Protocol in Bereavement Research: A Methodological Discussion

This article focuses on a discussion of the use of triangulation in bereavement research. The authors note that triangulation is a research methodology that can add value to research findings in fields such as bereavement, where diversity in experiences and complexity of issues are common. For this ...

Implications of Parental Suicide and Violent Death for Promotion of Resilience of Parentally-Bereaved Children

This article examines the question of whether children who experience the suicide of a parent experience unique mental health problems or require different interventions than children who experience the non-violent death of a parent. The authors studied children who had experienced parental death du...

Influences on Grief Among Parentally Bereaved Adults

This article summarizes a study that investigated influences on the grief of parentally bereaved young adults, particularly the impact of sex of the bereaved young adult and the sex of the deceased parent.  A total of 179 young adults, 77 males and 102 females, most of whom were between the age...

Informal Carer Bereavement Outcome: Relation to Quality of End of Life Support and Achievement of Preferred Place of Death

This article summarizes the results of a study designed to explore the impact of death and of the caregiver’s satisfaction with the end of life care on caregivers’ bereavement outcomes. Caregivers completed a variety of questionnaires to provide data on their own health and their grief e...

International Comparison of Studies Using the Perinatal Grief Scale: A Decade of Research on Pregnancy Loss

This article describes the measure, Perinatal Grief Scale (PGS), and describes and compares the results of 22 studies using the PGS with 2485 participants from the United States, the Netherlands, Great Britain, and Germany.  The PGS was constructed to encompass the multiple and varied dimension...

Internet Support Groups for Suicide Survivors: A New Mode for Gaining Bereavement Assistance

This article summarizes the results of a study designed to investigate the use of Internet support groups by the parents of children who committed suicide. The researchers also studied parents who attended face-to-face support groups in order to provide a comparison with parents who used the Interne...

Internet-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Complicated Grief: A Randomized Controlled Trial

This article describes a 5-week email-based therapy program using a cognitive behavioral model to work with participants identified as experiencing complicated grief.  A total of 55 participants were randomly assigned to either the treatment group or a wait-listed control group. The Impact of E...

Investigating Adaptive Grieving Styles: A Delphi Study

This article summarizes the results of a study that used the Delphi method of gathering opinions from experts to investigate the adaptive grieving styles model of bereavement. As developed by T. L. Martin and Kenneth J. Doka, adaptive grieving styles are conceptualized as running along a continuum w...

Is There More to Complicated Grief Than Depression and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder? A Test of Incremental Validity

This article addresses the issue of whether a new diagnostic category that reflects the characteristics of complicated grief (CG) should be developed and considered for inclusion in the next edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. The article specifically addresses the ...

Let Me Hear of Your Mercy in the Mourning: Forgiveness, Grief, and Continuing Bonds

This article summarizes the results of two studies that investigated the relationship between continuing bonds and forgiveness, and were part of a larger project that investigated the relationship between forgiveness, attachment and bereavement to assess whether Continuing Bonds (CB) contribute to a...

Long-Term Effects of the Family Bereavement Program on Multiple Indicators of Grief in Parentally Bereaved Children and Adolescents

This article describes the results of a study that examined the impact of a Family Bereavement Program (FBP) on measures of grief among children and adolescents who had experienced the death of a parent.  Participants were 244 children and adolescents participants who completed the Texas Revise...

Long-Term Outcomes of War-Related Death of Family Members in Kosovar Civilian War Survivors

This article summarized the results of a study that investigated the long-term effects on the survivors of the Kosovo war of 1998-1999 who had experienced a war-related death in their immediate family. This study compared the rates of depression, anxiety disorders, and quality of life of two groups,...

Loss and Disorganization from an Attachment Perspective

The author discusses attachment issues associated with unresolved loss or prolonged grief disorder following the death of a loved one. The author discusses the use by different grief theorists of terms such as recovery, resilience, restoration, adaptive continuing bonds, reintegration, and reconstru...

Making Sense of Loss: A Content Analysis of End-of-Life Practitioners' Therapeutic Approaches

This study analyses the various therapeutic approaches utilized by 119 end-of-life practitioners of various occupations. End-of-life practitioners spend the majority of their time supporting the dying or bereaved as they make sense of the death they are anticipating or have experienced. The end-of-l...

Management of Challenges of Conjugal Loss Among Chinese Widowers: An Exploratory Study

This article describes a study of coping strategies employed by Chinese widowers who self-rated as having achieved a healthy bereavement adjustment. The authors used the dual process model of bereavement to conceptualize healthy bereavement adjustment. Thus, the authors looked for coping strategies ...

Maori Men and the Grief of SIDS

This article presents a summary of themes identified through a qualitative study of 9 Maori men who had experienced the death of an infant due to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). The first theme identified by the authors was that the men faced numerous stressors at the time of death, including t...

Meaning Reconstruction in Bereavement: Sense and Significance

This article is an opinion piece suggesting that “life significance,” feeling like one’s life matters, is an important construct for bereavement outcomes, but has been neglected in the empirical and theoretical attention in the academic literature discussions regarding meaning-maki...

Meaning Reconstruction in the First Two Years of Bereavement: The Role of Sense-Making and Benefit-Finding

This article summarizes the results of a research study that examined the impact that making sense of a death, or finding benefits in a death, had on the grief journey of over 1,000 recently bereaved undergraduate psychology students. The study showed that those bereaved individuals who were able to...

Meaning-Making After Neonatal Death: Narratives of Xhosa-Speaking Women in South Africa

This article summarized the results of an exploratory study to understand how Xhosa-speaking mothers grieve after experiencing the death of a neonate. Data were collected from the interviews of six mothers whose babies had died within seven days of birth, and the death had occurred at least one year...

Meaning-Making in Memories: A Comparison of Memories of Death-Related and Low-Point Life Experiences

This article describes a study that was designed to determine if the death-related memories of hospice workers revealed more about meaning-making strategies than did their memories of low points in their lives. Researchers recruited 52 hospice volunteers and directed them to write two narratives: on...

Meaning-Making through Psychological Autopsy Interviews: The Value of Participating in Qualitative Research for Those Bereaved by Suicide

This article summarized a study that investigated the impact of participating in research on adults bereaved by suicide. Data were collected from 97 qualitative interviews of an ongoing psychological autopsy study.  After each interview the informant was asked, “How did you find being int...

Measuring Meaning: Searching for and Making Sense of Spousal Loss in Late-Life

The authors of this article used data from 263 participants in the Changing Lives of Older Couples (CLOC) study to examine the role of sense-making in grief experiences of older adults (mean age 72.8 years) who experienced the death of a spouse. The authors note that meaning-making has been conceptu...

Memory Keepers: A Narrative Study on Siblings Never Known

The authors of this article conducted a quantitative study that explored, through retrospective narratives, the experiences of adults who had a deceased sibling that they had never known, due to the death of the sibling shortly after birth. Fifteen participants were interviewed with semi-structured ...

Men's Grief, Meaning and Growth: A Phenomenological Investigation into the Meaning of Loss

This article summarizes the results of a phenomenological study investigating the experience of loss, grief, meaning and growth during the bereavement of three Danish men, each of whom had experienced the death of a spouse/partner due to cancer.  Data were obtained from one hour qualitative sem...

Music Therapy with Bereaved Teenagers: A Mixed Methods Perspective

The authors conducted a mixed methods study with 16 teenagers aged 13 to 16 who had experienced the death of a close relative. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of weekly music support group programs on self-perceptions and self-worth of bereaved teens. Quantitative results did...

Online Grief Support Groups: Facilitators' Attitudes

This article summarizes a study that investigated grief support group facilitators’ views regarding online and in-person grief support groups as effective clinical tools for the bereaved, willingness to refer to online grief support groups, and challenges in facilitating in-person or online gr...

Parental Grief Responses and Personal Growth Following the Death of a Child

The authors studied the relationship between bereaved mothers’ optimism, coping skills and perceived social support and the intensity of their grief reactions. Thirty-five bereaved mothers, who were recruited from Compassionate Friends support group meetings and an ad placed in the monthly new...

Parental Perceptions of Siblings' Grieving after a Childhood Cancer Death: A Longitudinal Study

This article summarizes the results of a longitudinal qualitative study that investigated parents’ perceptions of their children’s grief reactions at 6 months and 18 months after the cancer death of a sibling.  Thirty parents participated in a face-to face interview 6 months post de...

Parentally Bereaved Children's Grief: Self-system Beliefs as Mediators of the Relations Between Grief and Stressors and Caregiver-Child Relationship Quality

This article describes a study that analyzed the impact on grief of the beliefs of bereaved children regarding fear of abandonment, coping efficacy, and self-esteem. The researchers also examined the children’s stressors and caregiver-child relationship quality.  The authors concluded tha...

Parents' and Children's Perspectives of a Children's Hospice Bereavement Program

This article discusses a study designed to evaluate bereavement support programs at a pediatric hospice in Canada. The hospice provided follow-up bereavement care to families whose child had died in the hospice, as well as bi-weekly support groups for young children (ages 6-12), teens (ages 13-17), ...

Participants' Recommendations for the Ideal Grief Group: A Qualitative Study

This article summarized the results of an exploratory study to identify what bereaved adults recommend for good/ideal grief support groups. The study was part of the “Grief Groups in Norway” study. All of the 21 adult participants had attended grief support groups led by at one or two be...

Perinatal Loss: A Qualitative Study in Northern Ireland

This article summarizes the findings of a qualitative research study based on in-depth interviews with 23 women recruited from pregnancy loss support groups. The women, ranging in age from 19 to 60, experienced either stillbirth or miscarriage.  The time period since the loss ranged from two mo...

Personal Fear of Death and Grief in Bereaved Mothers

This article summarized the results of a study to explore the relationship between death anxiety and the intensity of women’s grief after experiencing miscarriage, stillbirth, neonatal death, or infant/child death. The Multidimensional Fear of Death Scale (MFODS) was used to measure death anxi...

Personal Strength and Finding Meaning in Conjugally Bereaved Older Adults: A Four-Year Prospective Analysis

The authors aimed to identify a trajectory of gaining personal strength over a four year time period and examined the way bereaved older adults attained personal strength after being widowed. An exploratory path model with multiple variables was used to determine the level of self-appraised personal...

Positive and Negative Experiences from Grief Group Participation: A Qualitative Study

This article summarizes a qualitative study from a larger project, “Grief Support Groups in Norway,” that investigated the experiences of grief support group participants to explore the positive and negative aspects of participating in a grief support group.  Twenty-one bereaved adu...

Positive Experiences for Participants in Suicide Bereavement Groups: A Grounded Theory Model

This article summarized findings from an exploratory study that examined the experiences of 13 bereaved adults who attended either a 6-week or 8-week suicide bereavement support group in Australia. Twelve females and one male participated.  Over 60% of the participants were 51-50 years of age. ...

Predictors of Children's Understandings of Death: Age, Cognitive Ability, Death Experience and Maternal Communicative Competence

The article presents a study on how a child’s age, cognitive ability, and death experiences, as well as the mother’s ability to communicate about death, influenced the child’s understanding of death.  The authors identified four components of death as essential to a full under...

Predictors of Complicated Grief after a Natural Disaster: A Population Study Two Years after the 2001 South-East Asian Tsunami

The authors of this article explored predictors of complicated grief, also termed Prolonged Grief Disorder, in a sample of bereaved Norwegians two years after experiencing the death of close family members in the 2004 Southeast Asian tsunami. Quantitative questionnaires were completed by 130 adults ...

Predictors of Complicated Grief: A Systematic Review of Empirical Studies

The authors of this article performed a systematic review of 40 studies that had examined predictors for complicated grief. The authors found that the majority of the studies had used either the Inventory of Complicated Grief or the Texas Revised Inventory of Grief. The authors acknowledged the hist...

Predictors of Grief Following the Death of One's Child: The Contribution of Finding Meaning

This study explored the impact on parental bereavement of factors such as nature of the death (violent or nonviolent), child’s age at time of death, and time since the loss. In addition, the researchers analyzed the parent’s ability to find meaning in the death. Ability to finding meanin...

Prescribing of Psychiatric Medication to Bereaved Parents Following Perinatal/Neonatal Death: An Observational Study

This article summarizes the results of a study that investigated patterns of prescribing antidepressants and benzodiazepines to bereaved parents after a stillbirth or perinatal/neonatal death.  Data were obtained and analyzed from the responses of 235 bereaved parents (mostly women) from an onl...

Prevalence and Severity of College Student Bereavement Examined in a Randomly Selected Sample

This article examined the prevalence rates of bereavement among college students in a private, Midwestern university. Using a randomly selected sample of 118 students between the ages of 18 and 23, the authors found that 30% of the students had experienced a death within the previous 12 months, and ...

Profiles of Posttraumatic Growth Following an Unjust Loss

This article summarizes a study designed to develop understanding of the connections between personal losses and posttraumatic growth. Data was collected through in-depth interviews with 52 family members of men who had been killed eight years previously in a mine explosion. The interviews included ...

Prolonged Grief Disorder and Depression in a German Community Sample

This article summarizes a study that investigated whether depression and prolonged grief are distinct from each other, and examined rates and risk factors for prolonged grief disorder.  Sixty-one  adults in a German community who had experienced the death of a first degree relative within ...

Prolonged Grief Disorder: Psychometric Validation of Criteria Proposed for DSM-V and ICD-11

This article describes a study to evaluate the psychometric validity of the criteria that have been proposed for Prolonged Grief Disorder (PGD). The criteria assessed included the presence of yearning for the deceased, and at least five of the following nine symptoms: feeling emotionally numb, feeli...

Psychological Adjustment to Conjugal Bereavement: Do Social Networks Aid Coping Following Spousal Death?

The researchers studied the role that social networks play in helping individuals cope with the death of a spouse. The study was conducted in South Africa, with 198 participants from a rural region. Researchers found that the presence of higher levels of social support was associated with lower leve...

Psychotherapy of Traumatic Grief: A Review of Evidence for Psychotherapeutic Treatments

This article introduces and presents a full description of the concept of Traumatic Grief as a new diagnostic disorder.  It also includes a review of psychotherapy treatments from controlled clinical trials of separation anxiety disorders in children and pathological grief in adults.  Trea...

Religion and Spirituality in Adjustment Following Bereavement: An Integrative Review

This article summarizes the findings of 73 empirical articles that considered the role of religion/spirituality in the adjustment of the bereaved following the death of a loved one.  The report sought to review the literature to address whether or not religion/spirituality is helpful in the adj...

Religion/Spirituality and Change in Meaning after Bereavement: Qualitative Evidence for the Meaning Making Model

This article summarizes the authors search and findings from the literature regarding how and when meaning changes for the bereaved when religion/spirituality is used as the meaning making system.  A review of the literature identified 39 qualitative studies that met the criteria.  Sevente...

Research with Bereaved Parents: A Question of How Not Why

This article summarizes the results from a qualitative study in which 69 parents of deceased children were interviewed to explore the experience and impact of the research process. The study concluded that the bereaved parents felt that participation in the research process was a positive experience...

Research, Clinical Practice, and the Human Experience: Putting the Pieces Together

This author of this article was co-principal investigator of the Harvard Child Bereavement Study.  She is both a clinician and a researcher.  In this article she discusses the differences between the cultures of the clinician and the researcher.  The culture surrounding clinicians is ...

Resilience Rather than Recovery: a Contextual Framework on Adaptation Following Bereavement

This article summarizes a theoretical framework for viewing the process of change following bereavement. The authors propose that the use of the term adaptation is more appropriate than recovery. The authors also suggest that an adaptation characterized by resilience is most likely to result in posi...

Resilience to Loss and Chronic Grief: A Prospective Study From Preloss to 18-months Postloss

The article describes a study that obtained data on elderly couples, and subsequently obtained additional data on 205 of the participants who had experienced the death of their spouse. The authors sought to identify patterns of grief at 6 and 18 months post-loss. The results of the study showed that...

Risk Factors for Bereavement Outcomes: A Multivariate Approach

The authors conducted a longitudinal study with 195 participants over six months to identify risk factors associated with poor bereavement outcomes. The researchers gathered data related to grief symptoms, depressive symptoms, positive affect, emotional loneliness, and a wide variety of risk factors...

Screening for Complicated Grief: When Less May Provide More

The article summarizes the results of a study to discover screening questions for initial clinical interviews that would identify patients most likely experiencing complicated grief (CG).  The study compared the responses of 235 psychiatric outpatients from two sets of questionnaire items. ...

Searching for the Meaning of Meaning: Grief Therapy and the Process of Reconstruction

This article surveys existing studies regarding the effectiveness of bereavement interventions. The author reviewed 23 separate studies that compared the results of bereavement interventions with control groups. The studies reflected diverse types of losses, diverse interventions, and diverse measur...

Self-Concept and Depression Among Children Who Experienced the Death of a Family Member

This article summarized the results of a study that examined the moderating effects of physical and academic self-concepts on the development of depression in children who experienced the death of a family member. Based on data from Phase III in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Devel...

Sense of Presence Experiences and Meaning-Making in Bereavement: A Qualitative Analysis

This article summarized the results of a study that explored how the bereaved conceptualize “sense of presence of the deceased” experiences, as well as how these experiences contribute to meaning making in the grief journey.  Twelve participants who had experienced a sense of presen...

Sense-Making, Grief, and The Experience of Violent Loss: Toward a Mediational Model

This study was designed to examine the role of sense-making as a meditational factor influencing the development of complicated grief following a loss.  Undergraduate students in psychology who had experienced a significant death in the prior two years participated in the study. The students co...

Separation from Loved Ones in the Fear of Death

This study explores the relationship between an individual’s fear of death and dying and the fear of the death and dying of others. The participants in the study consisted of 92 college students enrolled in introductory psychology. The average age of the participants was 20.8 years; 82% stated...

Sibling Bereavement and Continuing Bonds

This article provides a review of the shift in bereavement literature towards acceptance of a continuing attachment or bond with the deceased as a healthy part of coping with the death of a loved one. The article reviews a variety of recent research that identifies the ways in which children maintai...

Six-Year Longitudinal Predictors of Posttraumatic Growth in Parentally Bereaved Adolescents and Young Adults

This article summarizes the results of a longitudinal study designed to identify variables predicting posttraumatic growth in adolescents and young adults who had experienced the death of a parent. The researchers measured a variety of factors related to demographics, appraisal, coping processes, me...

Social Comparisons and Well-Being Following Widowhood and Divorce

This article describes a study designed to investigate social comparison processes and well-being among married, widowed, and divorced adults. The authors surveyed 196 participants to assess their well-being and their use of downward positive comparisons, downward negative comparisons, upward positi...

Sorrow and Solace: Neglected Areas in Bereavement Research

In this article, the author offers his opinion that the current grief research has ignored or downplayed the central phenomena of sorrow and solace in intense and prolonged grief.  Instead, the research has focused on positive outcomes such as growth, resolution, resilience, meaning-making, etc...

Sound Continuing Bonds with the Deceased: The Relevance of Music, Including Pre-loss Music Therapy, for Eight Bereaved Caregivers

This article summarized the results of a qualitative and exploratory study that examined the impact of music, both pre-death and post-death, for bereaved caregivers of people who died from advanced cancer. Eight participants recruited through a hospital and hospice in Melbourne, Australia, each of w...

Stigmatization and Receptivity to Mental Health Services among Recently Bereaved Adults

This article reported on a study conducted that investigated the perceptions of bereaved adults regarding their attitudes about severe grief, receptivity to mental health treatment because of the severe grief, and stigmatization due to a complicated grief diagnosis.  Data were obtained from the...

Stigmatized Deaths in Jonestown: Finding a Locus for Grief

This article is an opinion piece that describes the benefits and importance of an online memorial website.  A memorial website was created in 2008 for the victims, survivors and family members of the mass murder and suicide that occurred in Jonesboro, Guyana in 1978.  The website published...

Suicide Postvention as Suicide Prevention: Improvement and Expansion in the United States

The authors of this article suggest that suicide postventions, defined as activities that aid suicide survivors following a suicide, not only serve to assist in the survivors’ grief journey, but also help prevent additional suicides. The authors note that studies have indicated that suicide su...

TAT Results in a Longitudinal Study of Bereaved College Students

This study analyzed data obtained from 141 bereaved and nonbereaved college students. The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) was used to elicit responses regarding death, grief, coping, and affiliation. Analyses were based upon grouping the students into three categories: bereaved students who partici...

The Aftermath of Suicide: Managing Survivors' Bereavement

This article summarized a literature review of studies regarding suicide survivors’ grief and treatment compared to survivors who experienced a death due to accidents and natural causes.  Researchers reported findings from several studies comparing three groups of suicide survivors: close...

The Continuing Process of Parental Grief

This article summarizes qualitative research into the grief experienced by parents following the death of a child. Participants were 101 parents from a nursing alumni association who had experienced the death of one of their own children during their adult lives. The authors concluded that parental ...

The Costs of Suicide and Sudden Death Within an Organization

This article advocates that organizations improve their ability to handle deaths that impact the workplace. The authors note that the suicide of an employee or an employee’s family member can create challenging situations for managers and front line personnel, and recommend that education and ...

The Effectiveness of Bereavement Interventions with Children: A Meta-Analytic Review of Controlled Outcome Research

Previous studies have concluded that bereaved children are potentially at risk for psychological problems or emotional and behavior difficulties.  This study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of different psychosocial interventions with bereaved children by conducting a quantitative literatu...

The Effectiveness of Psychotherapeutic Interventions for Bereaved Persons: A Comprehensive Quantitative Review

This article describes a meta-analysis of 61controlled studies of bereavement interventions. The overall analysis showed that while the interventions produced a small effect immediately following treatment, no significant long-term benefits were found. The authors note, however, that interventions t...

The Efficacy of Adult Christian Support Groups in Coping with the Death of a Significant Loved One

The authors conducted a study to compare outcomes for bereaved adults attending secular support groups with outcomes for those attending Christian support groups. The Beck Hopelessness Scale and the Brief Religious Coping Scale were used to measure outcomes. Participants included 49 members of hospi...

The Experience of Miscarriage in First Pregnancy: The Women's Voices

This article summarizes the results of a qualitative study designed to provide insights into the experiences of women who have had a miscarriage in their first pregnancy. Nineteen Israeli women were interviewed about the miscarriage experience of their first pregnancy.  Five central themes emer...

The Experiences of Mothers Bereaved by Suicide: An Exploratory Study

This article summarizes a study that explored the meaning of loss from the suicide death of 7 bereaved biological mothers.  The deceased children ranged in age from 16 and 44 years old at the time of death, and had died in the prior 2 to 5 years.  Data were collected via a biological quest...

The Experiences of Parents Readjusting to the Workplace Following the Death of a Child by Suicide

This article summarizes a study investigating the experiences of bereaved parents returning to the workplace after the death of a child by suicide. A qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews was used to obtain data from 11 bereaved parents (six mothers and five fathers) in Northern Irel...

The Family Bereavement Program: Description of a Theory-based Prevention Program for Parentally-bereaved Children and Adolescents

This article summarizes the Family Bereavement Program, a theory based program, for bereaved youth and their caregivers designed to affect risk and protective factors associated with bereavement adaptation of parentally-bereaved youth and promote resiliency.  Participants included 156 families,...

The Fundamental Paradox in the Grief Literature: A Critical Reflection

The article identifies a “fundamental paradox” in the current grief literature. The paradox is that the grief literature emphasizes the unique nature of each grief experience while simultaneously attempting to draw a clear distinction between normal and pathological grief. The authors al...

The Generation of Hypotheses with Regard to the Influence of Context on Complicated Grief

This article describes a small qualitative study of 13 bereaved women living in South Africa who were assessed at a mental clinic as suffering from complicated grief. Interviews were conducted with the women to gain insight into the impact of personal context, family context, and socio-environmental...

The Impact of Circumstances Surrounding the Death of a Child on Parents' Grief

This article presents the findings of a longitudinal study conducted in the Netherlands of bereaved parents. The study examined the relationship between the children’s causes of death and the parents’ experiences of grief and depression after the loss.  The study participants includ...

The Influence of Maternal Loss on Young Women's Experience of Identity Development in Emerging Adulthood

The article summarizes the results of a qualitative study to explore the influence of maternal loss on the identity development of 6 young women, aged 18 – 25 years old. A short series of in-depth, semi-structured interviews was conducted and analyzed for common themes. One key theme was that ...

The Lived Experience of Adults Bereaved by Suicide: A Phenomenological Study

This article summarizes a qualitative study conducted using semi-structured interviews with eight adults who had survived the suicide of a close family member. The authors found that four main themes emerged from the interviews. The first theme, controlling the impact of the suicide, refers to the s...

The Relationship between Explanatory Style and Posttraumatic Growth After Bereavement in a Non-clinical Sample

This article discusses the factors that influence positive changes, or posttraumatic growth, following bereavement. The study was based upon questionnaires completed by 105 undergraduate students in Hong Kong who had experienced the death of a loved one within the last six years. The authors found t...

The Reporting of Grief by One Newspaper of Record for the U.S.: The New York Times

Utilizing a sociological perspective, the author explored how The New York Times has presented grief to the American public in 50 articles dating from 1980 to 2006.  The author identified two key themes in the newspaper articles: grief management, or statements about what the bereaved should do...

The Role of Continuing Bonds in Coping With Grief: Overview and Future Directions

This article offers an overview of the current research on continuing bonds, including a broad operational definition and a statement that few conclusions can be made regarding the adaptive or maladaptive nature of continuing bonds because of contradictory study findings.  A continuing bond was...

The Role of Grief, Anxiety, and Depressive Symptoms in the Use of Bereavement Services

This study examined data from 250 older individuals (mean age of 70) to identify factors that contributed to seeking bereavements services following the death of a spouse.  Data were obtained from the Changing Lives of Older Couples (CLOC) study; individuals who had provided baseline data, had ...

The Role of Peer Relationships in Parental Bereavement during Childhood and Adolescence

This article provides a review of the findings in the current academic literature    about the relationship between peer relationships/support for children and adolescents bereaved of a parent and their adjustment outcomes. Given that studies have yielded a wide variance in children&r...

The Self-Concept and Conjugal Loss: Evidence for Structural Change

The authors of this article conducted a study with 57 widows (mean age 71.6 years) to identify changes in self-concept during the first 2 years after the death of the spouse. Self-concept was conceptualized as including self-esteem, environmental mastery, and optimism. Measurements were taken seven ...

The Social Relations of Bereavement in the Caribbean

The article discusses the bereavement practices of different Caribbean religious/ethnic/cultural groups on the islands of Jamaica, Trinidad, Grenada, and Barbados.  In the Caribbean, bereavement is associated with a variety of traditional values and religious rituals. Since the population in th...

The Support Needs and Experiences of Suicidally Bereaved Family and Friends

The authors conducted a study with 166 adults who had experienced a suicide to examine their perceptions of need for support and of support received. Help was most frequently received from: 1) professional counselors (47%), 2) general practitioners (43%), 3) funeral parlors (29%), 4) support groups ...

The Two-Track Model of Bereavement Questionnaire (TTBQ): Development and Validation of a Relational Measure

This article describes the Two-Track Model of Bereavement (TTMoB) and the development of a questionnaire, the Two-Track Bereavement Questionnaire (TTBQ) that utilizes concepts from the TTMoB. The TTMoB is based upon the theory that the two primary factors involved in bereavement are the biopsychosoc...

The Underlying Structure of Grief: A Taxometric Investigation of Prolonged and Normal Reactions to Loss

This article summarized a study that explored the underlying structure of nonpathological grief compared to complicated or prolonged grief. The purpose of the study was to determine whether nonpathological and pathological grief are two distinct conditions with discrete specificity of symptoms or re...

Trajectories of Social Support and Well-Being Across the First Two Years of Widowhood

This article summarizes a study that investigated levels of depression, life satisfaction and structural, functional and emotional social support of widows, bereaved of a husband 60 years old or older, over a 2 year period. Data were collected from the interviews of 62 widows conducted at 1 month po...

Traumatic and Complicated Grief Among Children: One or Two Constructs?

This article summarizes a study that: 1) examined whether complicated grief and traumatic grief in children are the same or separate and distinct concepts; and 2)  explored predictors of complicated and traumatic grief. According to the authors, the current literature seems to use the terms int...

Treatment of Complicated Grief: A Comparison Between Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy and Supportive Counseling

This article describes a study conducted in the Netherlands that compared the effectiveness of different therapeutic interventions in treating complicated grief. Three treatments were analyzed: twelve weeks of supportive counseling, six weeks of exposure therapy followed by six weeks of cognitive re...

Two Perspectives on the Needs of Individuals Bereaved by Suicide

This article summarizes a qualitative study that explored the needs of adults bereaved by suicide from the perspective of the bereaved and mental health workers.  Eleven adults bereaved by suicide and 4 mental health workers participated in 21 semi-structured interviews (11 adults bereaved by s...

Type of Continuing Bonds Expression and Its Comforting Versus Distressing Nature: Implications for Adjustment Among Bereaved Mothers

This article summarizes a study that examined eleven types of externalized and internalized continuing bonds (CB) expression, and their comforting versus distressing nature in terms of post traumatic adjustment among bereaved mothers.  The eleven CBs were: sensing the deceased’s presence,...

Unanticipated Death of a Partner: The Loss Experience of Bereaved Girlfriends of Fallen Israeli Soldiers

This article summarized the results of a qualitative study that investigated the bereavement experiences of girlfriends of deceased Israeli soldiers. The authors explain that in Israel the State plays a prominent role in the bereavement experience for the “family of the bereaved,” which ...

Validation of the Perinatal Grief Scale for Use in Chinese Women Who Have Experienced Recent Reproductive Loss

The authors conducted a study to validate the short version of the Perinatal Grief Scale (SVPGS) in the Chinese population. The authors administered the SVPGS to 314 Chinese women who had experienced a recent miscarriage. The majority of the reproductive losses (84%) had occurred in the first trimes...

Visiting the Site of Death: Experiences of the Bereaved after the 2004 Southeast Asian Tsunami

This article summarizes the results of a study that investigated the number of   bereaved Norwegian adults who visited the site of their loved one’s death in the 2004 southeast Asian tsunami, the impact of that visit, and differences in mental   health symptoms between thos...

What is “No Recovery?”

This article is an essay that examines the meaning of “recovery” and “no recovery” in the context of grief and bereavement. Kauffman states that social authorities have traditionally imposed norms of recovery following death, and that the recovery norm produces order and allo...

When Distress Does Not Become Depression: Emotion Context Sensitivity and Adjustment to Bereavement

This article summarizes a study based on laboratory interviews with 48 middle-aged adults who had experienced the death of a child or spouse. The interviews occurred at four months and at 18 months after the death. The authors assessed the participants for depression symptoms and evaluated the emoti...

Who Needs Grief Counseling? A Report from the Scott & White Grief Study

This article summarizes a study that explored how a sample of 69 bereaved adults coped and adapted to bereavement.  Data were collected using the following measurement tools: 1) the Hogan Grief Reaction Checklist, 2) the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, 3) the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived ...

With and Without: The Bereavement Experiences of Gay Men Who Have Lost a Partner to Non-AIDS-Related Causes

This article summarized the results of a study that investigated the bereavement experiences of gay men whose partners had died of non-AIDS related causes.  Participants had experienced the death of their partner at least 18 months prior and had in the relationship for at least 6 months.  ...

Young Children's Grief: Parents' Understanding and Coping

This article summarizes a qualitative study conducted through a Norwegian university hospital based bereavement support program that investigated bereaved parents’ understanding of their bereaved preschool children’s grief and how the parents supported their children’s coping. ...

Young People Living with Parental Bereavement: Insights from an Ethnographic Study of a UK Childhood Bereavement Service

The purpose of this study was to explore factors that helped 13 young people, aged 9 through 25, adjust to life after the death of a parent. Data were gathered from semi-structured interviews with 13 young people who were receiving bereavement services and were part of a larger ethnographic study.&n...